Vladimir Potekhin, Honorary professor,
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography

Geopolitical (Geoeconomic) Splitting
of Mainland and Continents


Today the subject of geopolitics is defined so broadly and controversially that the following question arises: whether geopolitics qualifies as scientific discipline. Mackinder’s Heartland, Spykman’s Rimland, fundamental dualism of sea and land, geographical determinism, and other concepts and theories of geopolitics have a hypothetical base and are mythological by nature. In geopolitics, there are no unified principles and logical structures which might reasonably be used for the adoption of different practical solutions in the field of politics, sociology, ethnology, diplomacy.

Geopolitics is, at best, an imperative of political action, the success of which is limited to the craft of political persuasion and dominance. But for the successful implementation of practical actions, it is necessary for geopolitics to have solid scientific grounds, its own research subject, and its own invariant laws, so that it would be a scientific discipline.

This article reveals the phenomenon of geo-economic splitting of the continents and its evolution in accordance with a geo-economic parameter. By using of this approach such familiar categories as “Heartland” and “Rimland” are not postulated, but arise naturally and lose all their logical inconsistencies. In the work emerge new categories are other land territories that appear along with the previously mentioned ones: Ringland (the Land of the Battles) and Spiritland (the Land of the Ancestors’ Spirits). Discontinuous belts can also be found here, but when referring to real geography.

The author believes that the article forms the theoretical conception of geopolitics and presents a surprisingly adequate image of current global events while bringing a huge potential for their research. The results are presented in the form of theorems. In particular, these theorems reveal the eternal “Battle of Sea and Land civilizations”, which, for the first time, takes specific scientific forms. Geographical dualism is filled with the contents and receives justification.

The full text of the article is here.


I. Identification of the Problem
II. On the way to solution.
III. Methodical experience of natural sciences.
  • 3.1. General comments about application of strict methods to historical sciences.
  • 3.2. Galilei’s principle of idealization
  • 3.3. Principle of economic expediency (Principle of least action)
  • IV. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Geopolitics"
  • 4.1. Spiritland - Land of ancestral spirits.
  • 4.2. Heartland – Hypostasis of ancestral Land.
  • 4.3. Rimland - Land of sea influence.
  • 4.4. Ringland - Land of battles.
  • V. Afterwords

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